Al-Bahir Journal for Engineering and Pure Sciences

Retraction Notice

The data needs to be revised and reanalyzed. In addition, the statement of the article would be reorganized/reexplain using the latest set of data as a reference to justify the claim of the article's finding.


Wood-polymer composites (WPCs) combine the properties of wood and polymers. Creating composites involves adding plant or wood fibers as fillers to a polymer matrix. This study used mahogany and mango wood sawdust as reinforcement materials, while high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were used as matrices. The investigated data in this study comprises four different (10, 20, 30, and 40) weight percentages (wt%) of mahogany and mango sawdust paired with corresponding wt% (90, 80, 70, and60) of HDPE and PVC matrices. The extrusion method produced composites with different amounts of sawdust and polymer matrices. Wood polymer composites were characterized by examining their mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to analyze their morphology. The results showed that the maximum tensile strength was obtained from the 20% for both sawdust composites. The ultimate tensile strength was recorded at 15.28 MPa for Mahogany sawdust-HDPE (Mh-HDPE) composite, whereas the Mahogany sawdust-PVC (Mh-PVC) exhibited the lowest tensile strength at 2.38 MPa. In addition, HDPE-based composite shows higher tensile strength (11.56 MPa) with Mango sawdust than PVC-based composites (2.28 MPa). Tensile strength, and impact strength of the fabricated composites were also assessed by ASTM standards. The maximum impact strength was obtained at 10wt% of sawdust for all four composites investigated in this study. It was also observed that impact strength significantly decreased with the increase of fiber percentage in the composite. These results demonstrated the highest mechanical properties of the Mh-HDPE than the other composites, which SEM further investigated. The morphological analyses confirmed uniform mixing of sawdust and polymer matrices, evident by the absence of no pores, cavities, or voids in the prepared composites.


[1] Satheeskumar N, Selvaranjan K, Jayasooriya D, Rajeev P, Sanjayan J. Applications of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced polymer in infrastructure: A suitability assessment. J Build Eng 2023:105835.

[2] Aamar D, Mosaberpanah MA, Salim MU, Amran M, Rediuk R , Ozbakkaloglu T, et al. Utilization of recycled carbon fiber reinforced polymer in cementitious composites: acritical review.JBuildEng2022;53:104583.

[3] Mohammadpourfazeli S, Arash S, Ansari A, Yang S, Mallick K, Bagherzadeh R. Future prospects and recent developments of polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) piezoelectric polymer; fabrication methods, structure, and electro-mechanicalproperties.RSCAdv2023;13(1):370e87.

[6] Jia C, Chen C, Mi R, Li T, Dai J, Yang Z. et al. Clear wood toward high-performance building materials.ACSNano2019;13(9):9993e10001.

[7] Namari S, Drosky L, Pudlitz B, Haller P, Sotayo A, Bradley D. et al. Mechanical properties of compressed wood.ConstructBuildMater2021;301:124269.

[8] Hung K, Yeh H, Yang T, Wu T, Xu J, Wu J. Characterization of wood-plastic composites made with different lignocellulosic materials that vary in their morphology, chemical composition and thermal stability.Polymers2017;9(12):726.

[13] Dai L, Wang X, Zhang J, Wang F, Ou R, Song Y. Effects of lubricants on the rheological and mechanical properties of wood flour/polypropylene composites. JApplPolymSci2019;136(25):47667.

[14] Liu C, Mei C, Xu B, Chen W, Yong C, Wang K, et al. Light stabilizers added to the shell of co-extruded wood/high-density polyethylene composites to improve mechanical and anti-UV ageing properties. RSoc OpenSci2018;5(5):180074.

[15] Rowell RM, Sanadi AR, Caulfield DF, Jacobson RE. Utilization of natural fibers in plastic composites: problems and opportunities. Lignocellulosicplasticscomposites1997;25.

[20] Ge S, Zuo S, Zhang M, Luo Y, Yang R, Wu Y, et al. Utilization of decayed wood for polyvinyl chloride/wood flour composites.JMaterResTechnol2021; 12:862e9.

[21] Zhang J, Li Y, Xing D, Wang Q, Wang H, Kouba A, et al. Reinforcement of continuous fibers for extruded wood-flour/HDPE composites: effects of fiber type and amount. ConstructBuildMater2019;228:116718.

[23] Gama N, Barros-Timmons A, Ferreira A, Evtuguin et al. Surface treatment of eucalyptus wood for improved HDPE composites properties. JApplPolymSci 2020;137(17):48619.

[26] Dányádi L, Janecska T, Szabó Z, Nagy G, Móczó J, Pukánszky B. Wood flour filled PP composites: compatibilization and adhesion. ComposSciTechnol2007;67(13): 2838e46.

[27] Ichazo MN, Albano C, Gonzalez J, Perera R, Candal MC. Polypropylene/wood flour composites: treatments and properties. ComposStruct2001;54(2-3):207e14.

[28] Sombatsompop N, Chaochanchaikul K, Phromchirasuk C, Thongsang S. Effect of wood sawdust content on rheological and structural changes,and thermos-mechanical properties of PVC/sawdust composites. Polym Int2003;52(12):1847e55.

[30] Redhwi HH, Siddiqui MN, Andrady AL, Furquan SA, Hussain S. Durability of high-density polyethylene(HDPE)-and polypropylene(PP)-Based wood plastic composites-Part 1: mechanical properties of the composite materials. JournalofCompositesScience2023; 7(4):163.

[32] Subramanian K, Krishnasamy S, Muthukumar C, Siengchin S, Gnaniar K, Kanagaraj A. Tribology of wood polymer composites. Wood polymer composites. RecentAdvancementsandApplications2021:179e93.

[36] Arthur DE, Akoji JN, Okafor GC, Abdullahi KL, Abdullahi SA, Mgbemena C. et al. Studies on some mechanical properties of PVC-wood fiber composite. ChemicalReviewandLetters 2021;4(2):85e91.

[37] Ramesh M, Rajeshkumar L, Sasikala G, Balaji D, Saravanakumar A, Bhuvaneswari V, et al. A critical review on wood-based polymer composites: processing, properties, and prospects. Polymers2022;14(3):589.

[40] Ayyanar BACB, Mohan PSK, Ramesh M, Kumar LR, Marimuthu K, Sanjay MR et al. Effect of natural fillers as reinforcements on mechanical and thermal properties of HDPE composites. JThermoplastComposMater2023:1e20. https://doi.org/10.1177/08927057231186312.

[41] Ayyanar CB, Marimuthu K, Sridhar N, Mugilan T, Alqarni SA, Katowash DF, et al. Mechanical and materialistic characterization of poly lactic acid/zeolite/hydroxyapatite composites. JInorgOrganometPolymMater2023:0123456789.https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10904-023-02647-3.

[43] Hossain KR, Jami MM, Shyeed A, Khatun K, Hasan K, Cobra K, et al. Application of 3D printing in medicine: technologies and challenges. Al-Bahir Journal for Engineering and Pure Sciences: Vol.3: Iss. 1, Article 7, 2023.