Al-Bahir Journal for Engineering and Pure Sciences

Editorial Policies

The Publication Ethics, COPE : ethical norms and guidelines are all observed by the AlBahir Journal for Engineering and Pure Sciences (BJEPS). When submitting a paper to the journal, authors are to indicate that they have read, comprehended, and agreed to the policies of the journal . Great efforts they show to ensure that their work complies with these ethical standards .


Authors submitted their paper to BJEPS are much meant to mention accurately their affiliations to reflect where it was approved, supported, and conducted. Yet a non-research article is to list the affiliation as the place where it was based at the time of submission. Misrepresenting an affiliation is a form of misconduct, and BJEPS keeps its rights to investigate such cases by contacting all relevant institutions.

Appeals and Complaints

BJEPS policy is that the Editors-in-Chief should be the only persons to receive complaints, objections, or appeals about authorship issues or the peer-review process, even those made after publication. The Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE; https://publicationethics.org/) has stated the academic ethical norms to be adhered to in the investigation of such claims. Information from all concerned parties will be requested. Until the problem is mended, the submission process will be halted at any point during the review or publication process. The managing editor or any member of the editorial board may be contacted by the editors-in-chief if they are involved in the complaint in order to look into the allegations and suggest a course of action.


It is appropriate to give credit to anyone who contributed to the development of the manuscript and such does not fit the requirements for authorship unless there is a consent from the contributors . Additionally, organizations that contributed money or other resources are to be mentioned separately in the article.

The writers are accountable for notifying and securing the consent from the people they want to mention in this section. Sharing the article should be part of the permissions procedure so that the people whose names are being mentioned can confirm the context of their acknowledgment.

Groups of people who have made significant contributions to the article but whose work does not warrant authorship can be listed under terms like "clinical investigators" or "participating investigators." Each role or contribution should be explained, such as "provided and cared for study patients," "served as scientific advisors," or "critically reviewed the study proposal."

These individuals should grant formal consent to be acknowledged, as readers may interpret it as their endorsement of the information and findings.

The article must expressly recognize any contribution made by “ AI tools (such as big language models)” and other comparable technical tools used in the creation of content. Authors bear the obligation of guaranteeing the authenticity, uniqueness, and consistency of the their content . It is anticipated that authors would utilize these kinds of resources sensibly, adhering to our editorial guidelines about authorship and publishing ethics.


According to BJEPS policy, all the names of the authors and affiliations are to be stated exactly and explicitly because it's a crucial way to acknowledge people who have made major contributions to the study. Moreover, it ensures openness for those in charge of maintaining the integrity of the content. All writers mentioned in an article should meet the following requirements to be considered authors:

  1. The idea and plan for the research, data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
  2. Writing a draft of the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  3. Final approval of the version to be published.

Authors are advised by BJEPS to confirm that the author group, corresponding author, and author order are proper at the time of submission. As co-authors, everyone who has contributed significantly ought to be mentioned. The corresponding author is responsible for making sure that all eligible co-authors are mentioned, that no unsuitable co-authors are included in the work, and that all co-authors have reviewed and approved the completed manuscript before it is submitted for publication.

It is noteworthy that involvement in the process of obtaining funds or gathering data alone does not confer authorship, and those involved are not regarded as co-authors. Furthermore, being the study group's overall supervisor is insufficient for authorship. The contributors' respective contributions to the study and article authoring should determine the order in which their names are listed. It is appropriate to recognize or name other individuals as contributors if they have contributed to any significant parts of the research project.

During the review period, changes to the order of authors, additions or deletions of authors, and modifications to Corresponding Authors are all conceivable. The corresponding author should provide the following information to the Editor-in-Chief to request such changes: (a) the rationale behind the author list modification, and (b) signed acknowledgment (letter or email) from each author indicating their consent to the insertion, deletion, or reorganization. When an author is added or removed, this also provides the added or removed author's confirmation. After acceptance, there can be no changes made to the authorship or author order.


Both research and non-research parts should cite timely, pertinent, and verified literature-where applicable, and peer-reviewed-to back up any assertions they make.

Author groups should not be prearranged to improperly cite each other's work or engage in excessive and inappropriate self-citation as this might be regarded as citation manipulation. Go through the COPE guidance on citation manipulation.

If you are the author of a non-research article (such as a review or opinion), you should make sure the references you list are accurate and give a fair and impartial summary of the status of scholarly work or study on the subject at hand. It is not appropriate for your references to unduly promote a specific publication, organization, or research group.

You should ask the journal editorial office for guidance if you are unclear whether to cite a source.

Conflicts of Interest/Competing Interests

BJEPS is demanding that all authors disclose any potential competing and conflicts of interest, both financial and non-financial, that could influence the research or interpretation of the results of your article. This includes any relationships or associations with other organizations or individuals that could be perceived by others as a conflict of interest. However, if the author (or his employer, sponsor, family, or friends) has a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations, or with the people who work for them, that relationship could influence the research or the interpretation of the results, then there may be a competing interest.

Examples of Financial Competing Interests Include (but are not limited to):

  • Employment or volunteer work.
  • Working with advocacy groups on issues pertaining to the content of the article.
  • Grants from a source given to the organization or author.
  • Received personally: honoraria, royalties, consulting fees, lecture fees, testimonies, etc.
  • Patents that the authors, their institutions, funding organizations, or other entities own or are pending.
  • Royalties that the authors or their institutions receive.
  • Stock or share ownership.
  • Benefits related to the development of products as a result of the work.

Examples of Non-financial Competing Interests Include (but are not limited to):

  • The acquisition of medications, apparatus, or data access by a party that stands to gain financially or politically from the findings that are made public.
  • Having a role on the boards of trade associations or private businesses that stand to gain financially or reputationally from the conclusions publicized.
  • Writing help or administrative support from an individual or group that stands to gain from the findings released.
  • Competing intellectual, academic, political, religious and personal interests are seen as pertinent to the published material.
  • Participation in litigation pertinent to the work.

A conflicting interest declaration, will be included in the article's Disclosure section, should be completed by each author of a paper submitted to the journal. In case an author is uncertain about disclosing a conflicting interest, they ought to seek advice from their organization or the editor of the journal, who can provide guidance on appropriate steps to take.

The phrase "The authors declare that they have no competing interests" will be added to the article if there are no competing interests to disclose.

Sponsorship of Clinical Trials

The Authors who work for pharmaceutical companies or other organizations that sponsor clinical trials must state this as a competing interest. Authors should follow the Good Publication Practice guidelines for pharmaceutical companies (GPP3) to maintain scientific and ethical standards are maintained.

Corrections, Expressions of Concern and Retractions

Sometimes after an article has been published it may be necessary to make a change to its final edited version. In such cases, the corresponding author should send a signed letter to the BJEPS Editor in Chief who will decide the magnitude of the corrections by himself or by the Managing Editor or any assigned Editor to see how significant the corrections are. Minor corrections will be made directly to the original article. However, for major corrections, the original article will remain unchanged, and a corrected version will also be published. The original and corrected versions will be linked together. A statement explaining why the major change was made to the article will also be published. If necessary, articles will be retracted according to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) retraction guidelines.

When an error or omission that could affect how the article is interpreted needs to be corrected while maintaining the article's scholarly integrity, a correction notice will be sent out. Examples include a figure that is incorrectly labeled, financing details that are absent, or conflicting interests of the writers. The publication uses two different forms of correction notices: an erratum is usually published for errors introduced by the publisher, and a corrigendum is usually issued for errors made by the authors.

If a significant mistake , such as in the analysis or methods, renders the conclusions of the paper invalid, or if research misconduct or publication misconduct has occurred , such as research conducted without the necessary ethical approvals, falsified data, altered images, plagiarism, duplicate publication, etc.), a retraction notice will be sent out. The choice of whether to retract an item will be made in compliance with COPE guidelines. If the reasons for retraction are valid, authors and institutions may also request that their articles be retracted.
Every withdrawal published in the journal will guarantee:

  • There is a bidirectional relationship between the original article and the retraction.
  • The withdrawn article is prominently displayed with a digital watermark reading "Retracted" in both HTML and PDF versions.
  • The cause for the retraction is explained in detail.
  • The person or people who requested the retraction are made apparent.

The journal acknowledges that the goal of a retraction is to ensure the integrity of the published record and correct the literature. They are not meant to be used to penalize writers. Retractions are typically not granted to settle authorship disputes. The best course of action in this case is to publish a corrigendum. This is predicated on the writers' ability to defend the shift in authorship, which typically calls for the backing of the organizations in question. We shall do everything in our power to publish retractions as quickly as possible in order to lessen the impact of inaccurate or misleading publications.

In certain situations, an Expression of Concern Notice might be taken into consideration if serious concerns have been raised (such as serious research misconduct or publication misconduct), but the findings of the investigation are still preliminary or won't be finished for some time due to various complications. Following the conclusion of the investigation, an Expression of Concern may be followed by a Retraction or Correction notice, both of which will be permanently published alongside the original article.

In the extremely rare event that the issues are not resolved by a Retraction or Correction notice, a Removal notice will be sent. Examples include situations in which the content of the article violates other legal rights, is libelous, or is the subject of a court order. In the unlikely event that an article is taken down from the journal Online, its location will be marked with a removal notice.

Consent for Publication

Written informed consent for the publication of any details pertaining to a specific individual (or, in the case of minors under 18, their parent or legal guardian) should be sought for all manuscripts that include such details. Permission to publish their information under the CC-BY-NC should be obtained (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) (so that they can be accessed without charge on the internet). In the event that the person has passed away, the next of kin should give permission for publication. A statement as a written informed consent was acquired for publication to be included in the manuscript. If necessary, authors can utilize a consent form from their own institution or region in addition to the consent form provided here to get permission for publishing. The permission form needs to mention that the information and photos will be publicly accessible on the internet and could be viewed by anybody. The consent form will be kept private and be provided to the editor upon request.


Submitted manuscripts are confidential documents. BJEPS team guarantees that all submitted materials are confidential, and never share any document with anyone other than those involved in the processing and preparation of the manuscript for publication, editorial staff, corresponding authors, potential reviewers, actual reviewers, and editors. However, in suspected cases of misconduct, the editor-in-chief or Managing Editor of BJEPS has the right to disclose a manuscript to the academic journal's ethics committee members and to the institutions or the organizations that may need to investigate the misconduct. BJEPS will follow the appropriate COPE flowcharts whenever necessary. Once the submitted manuscript is accepted and released online, its utilization by any kind will follow the CC-BY-NC License of BJEPS stated below.

Data Falsification/Fabrication

That intentional steps have been taken to falsify or improperly manipulate data comes as a significant wrongdoing that aims to deceive others and compromise the credibility of the academic record, with far-reaching and permanent repercussions. Authors are required to make sure all information in their paper is accurate and accurately portrays their work before submitting it to the journal and should keep all raw data included in their manuscripts to aid the journal in reviewing their submissions. Retraction or denial of acceptance of a manuscript or published paper may occur if the original data is not available upon request.

Desk Rejection Policy

  • The focus and topic of the study are unrelated to the Journal area of interest.
  • There are issues with publication ethics, disregard for international standards, and plagiarism: defined as plagiarism with a similarity index more than 20 percent.
  • Neither the topic influence nor its contribution to new understanding in the discipline is strong enough.
  • The design of the study is flawed.
  • There is a vague statement regarding the goal of the study.
  • There are issues with the study of the organization or some of its components are absent.
  • There are issues with writing and a number of grammatical infelicities.
  • The work does not adhere to the journal's submission guidelines.

Duplicate Submission/Publication

Since authors are to state that their work is not being considered by another journal at the time of submission, it is usually assumed that any duplicate submission or publication was made on purpose. This covers everything already been published in another language. According to ICMJE guidelines, authors are to obtain permission from the publisher of the original article and copyright holder for acceptable forms of secondary submissions or publications, such as an English translation of the article, and notify the receiving journal's editor of the original article's history. Additionally, readers are to be informed that this is a translated version of the article and given a link to the original one.


In their paper, authors are required by the journal to disclose all funding sources, including financial support. The sponsors' involvement, if any, in any phase of the investigation—from study design to manuscript submission for publication—should be detailed by the authors. If the sponsor(s) had no such participation, that should also be stated. Please make sure that this data is correct and meets the requirements of your funder.

Images and Figures

Images and figures should only be included in your article if they are relevant and add value to the work you are writing. It is to avoid adding purely illustrative content that does not add value to your scholarly work. As part of the BJEPS Author Publishing Agreement, you make to BJEPS, you are to obtain the necessary written permission to include material in your article that is owned and held in copyright by a third party, including – but not limited to – any proprietary text, illustration, table, or other material, screenshots and any other supplemental material.


The journal will take all necessary steps, in compliance with COPE guidelines, to safeguard the integrity of the scholarly record and takes all wrongdoing seriously.

Examples of Misconduct Include (but are not limited to):

  • Misrepresenting an affiliation
  • Violating copyright or using content from third parties without authorization
  • Manipulation of citations
  • Plagiarism
  • Text-recycling/self-plagiarism
  • Duplicate submissions or publications
  • "Ethics dumping"
  • Image or data fabrication
  • Peer review manipulation
  • Unreported competing interests
  • Unethical research

Duplicate Submission

If it is discovered that a manuscript has been published or is undergoing review elsewhere, duplicate submission/publication sanctions will apply. Authors should cite prior work and explain how their submitted manuscript adds something new beyond what was included in the previously published work if their previously published or under review work served as the basis for the work that was used to create the submitted manuscript.

Citation Manipulation

Citation manipulation sanctions will apply to submitted publications that contain citations whose main goal is to boost the number of citations to the work of a certain author or to articles published in a specific journal.

Data Fabrication and Falsification

Data fabrication and falsification sanctions will be applied to submitted articles that are discovered to have either manufactured or falsified experimental results, including the modification of pictures.

Improper Author Contribution or Attribution

Each of the listed authors are to have given their approval to all of the manuscript's claims and made a substantial scientific contribution to the research. Enumerating all those who have contributed significantly to science, including lab personnel and students, is crucial.

Redundant Publications

Publications that are redundant occur when research findings are improperly divided across multiple papers.

Image Manipulation

The BJEPS team requires that all photographs in manuscripts that are submitted be correct and unaltered. It is forbidden to improve, hide, relocate, eliminate, or add specific characteristics from an image without providing sufficient notice of the change. If not, it will be regarded as misconduct. Misconduct is defined as a transgression of publication ethics, this policy, and any other applicable rules or regulations set forth by STM, COPE, WAME, ICMJE, and COPE. Potential misconduct includes any further actions that jeopardize or undermine the integrity of the publishing or research process. Cases of suspected misbehavior shall be looked upon in accordance with COPE principles. But provided they don't distort the image's truth; changes to an image's brightness, contrast, or color balance are permissible. The original, unedited photos may be requested from the author by the editor; if they are not provided, the manuscript may be rejected or withdrawn.

Open Access Policy

Every peer-reviewed research article published in BJEPS, an open-access journal, will be made available to the public without restriction. Under the following guidelines, users are free to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to full texts of articles: CC-BY-NC license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. This indicates that as soon as the content is published, it can be accessed globally and without restriction in an easily readable manner on the internet for the rest of time.

Publication Ethics

The journal and its editorial board fully adhere to and comply with the policies and principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Duties of Editors

Publication Decisions

The editorial board is in charge of selecting which of the submissions for publication should be published. Board members are limited by laws of plagiarism, copyright infringement and libel, therefore they consult and take reviewer recommendations into consideration while reaching their judgment. The manuscript's origins, as well as the writers' nationality, ethnicity, political views, race, or religion, have no bearing on the editorial judgments made.

Confidentiality, Disclosure, and Interest Conflicts

Editors are not allowed to share information about a submitted manuscript with anybody outside of the corresponding author, other editorial advisers, and reviewers or potential reviewers during the review process. Without the author's express written authorization, unpublished materials provided in a submitted manuscript may not be used in the research of an editor, reviewer, or other reader. The research or other scholarly work's funding should be disclosed to readers, along with any involvement they may have had in the research's development and publishing, if any.

Author Relations

Editors work hard to make sure that the journal's peer review process is prompt, impartial, and fair. To guarantee an objective evaluation, the journal has set guidelines for managing submissions from its editorial board members. Author guidelines offer direction regarding the requirements for authoring.

Reviewer Relations

The Journal invites reviewers to address ethical concerns and potential misconduct brought up by submissions, such as improper data manipulation and unethical research design, and to keep an eye out for plagiarism and duplicate publication. Reviewers' comments, unless they contain abusive or defamatory statements, should be delivered to authors in their entirety. Reviewers' contributions to the journal are often acknowledged, and reviewers who consistently submit rude, subpar, or delayed assessments are removed from the review process.

Quality Assurance

Editors should realize that various sections have varied goals and standards, and they should take all possible measures to assure the quality of the information they publish. When one exists, editors should make sure the study they publish has been approved by the relevant body, such as an institutional review board or research ethics committee. Editors ought to remain vigilant on matters of intellectual property and collaborate with their publishers to address any possible infringements of laws and customs. Mistakes, untrue, or deceptive claims have to be quickly and prominently addressed.

Duties of Reviewers

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Reviewers aid the editorial board in their decision-making. For writers to utilize reviews and observations to improve their work, they should be carried out impartially and explicitly, backed up by evidence. It is improper to criticize the author personally.

Qualification of Reviewers

If a reviewer is chosen and feels unfit to examine the research presented in a manuscript or knows that reviewing it quickly won't be feasible, they should inform the editor to withdraw from the review process. Manuscripts containing conflicts of interest arising from competitive, cooperative, or other relationships or affiliations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions associated with the papers should not be considered by reviewers.


Manuscripts submitted for review ought to be handled as private correspondence. Ideas or privileged information that have undergone peer review are to be kept private and not exploited for one's own gain.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Reviewers ought to locate pertinent published literature that the authors have not cited. Citations to other people's ideas should be included when referenced. Any significant resemblance or overlap between the manuscript being considered and any other published material about which the reviewer has firsthand knowledge should be brought to the editor's attention.

Duties of Authors

Reporting Standards

Report writers of original research should give a factual description of the work done and an objective analysis of its importance. The paper should accurately present the underlying data. When submitting a manuscript, authors should be ready to make raw data available to the public and keep it for a minimum of two years beyond publication. It is unethical and unprofessional to make false or intentionally erroneous statements.

Originality, Plagiarism, and Concurrent Publication

It is the responsibility of authors to make sure that all of their work is completely unique and that any borrowed words or works are properly cited. Any sort of plagiarism is undesirable and should be avoided as unethical publication conduct. It is unacceptable to submit nearly identical work to multiple journals at the same time as this is considered unethical publishing practice.

Disclosure and Interest Conflicts

Any financial or other significant conflicts of interest that could be interpreted to affect the paper interpretation or outcomes should be declared by each author in their submission. Disclosure of all funding sources for the project is required.

Authorship of the Paper

The corresponding author is responsible for making sure that all relevant co-authors are listed in the manuscript, that no unsuitable co-authors are included, and that all co-authors have reviewed and approved the final draft of the paper before it is submitted for publication. As co-authors, everyone who has contributed significantly ought to be mentioned. It is appropriate to recognize or name other individuals as contributors if they have contributed to any significant parts of the research endeavor.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

It is the responsibility of the author to promptly tell the journal editor of any substantial errors or inaccuracies found in the published work, and to collaborate with the editor to retract or mend the manuscript.

Peer Review Process

Every manuscript undergoes a peer review process and should adhere to the highest levels of academic quality. Once the editor has given the go-ahead, the manuscripts will be evaluated by peer reviewers, who will keep their identities secret from both the authors and the reviewers, "double-blind peer review". The editorial board is in charge of deciding whether to accept or reject an article, and it does so by considering the suggestions made by the reviewers, a peer-reviewed procedure.

Sometimes, our Research Integrity team will look for external counsel for submissions that have significant ethical, security, biosecurity, or societal ramifications. Before determining the best course of action, we may confer with specialists and the academic editor. This may involve selecting reviewers with specialized knowledge, having additional editors evaluate the submission, or opting not to proceed with further consideration.


BJEPS will not accept the use of another person's words, ideas, or works without giving due credit or acknowledgment. We take plagiarism extremely seriously. Rejected submissions will include self-plagiarism, duplicate or redundant publications, and plagiarism. It is not regarded as a duplicate publication to use the preprint archive. Throughout the review and publication phases, the corresponding author is in charge of the manuscript data and is able to act on behalf of all co-authors. Professional software is used to check all submitted manuscripts for plagiarism; those that have an unacceptable similarity index will fail the technical check stage and be returned to the author, or they will be rejected right away.

Preprints Policy

Preprints are available for authors at any time and any place. We encourage writers to use the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of the preprint to connect to their official publication if it is accepted for publication. Once a publication is approved, authors can update their preprints on arXiv, RePEc, etc.

Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy

If the patient, or parent or guardian, if appropriate, gives informed consent for publication, then identifying information should not be released in written descriptions, pictures, sonograms, CT scans, etc., or pedigrees unless the information is necessary for scientific purposes. Unless informed consent is acquired, authors should not include the names of patients in figures. The publication follows ICMJE guidelines:

  1. The patient consent form should be obtained by the authors prior to publication and properly archived; neither the journals nor the publisher is responsible for this. The consent forms should not be emailed to the editorial or publisher offices, nor should they be posted with the cover letter.
  2. A disclaimer regarding getting informed patient consent should be included in the paper if it includes patient photographs that prevent anonymity or a description that makes the patient's identity clear.

Research Ethics and Consent

Studies in Humans, Animals, and Plants

A formal declaration under the Ethics Approval section of all original research articles involving people, animals, plants, biological material, protected or non-public datasets, collections, or places are to contain the following information:

  • The identity of the relevant institutional review board(s) or ethical committee(s).
  • The ethics approval(s) number or ID.
  • A declaration that subjects, with humans, should give their informed consent prior to participating in the study.

Research involving animals should follow ethical guidelines for the welfare of the animals. Every original study article that uses animals needs to:

  • Adhere to institutional, national, and worldwide standards for the humane treatment of animals.
  • Provide a rationale for the use of animals and the species chosen; this should include information about the approval process, the names of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s) involved, and the number or ID of the ethics approval(s) in the Ethics Approval section.
  • Obtain approval from the ethics review committee at the practice or institution where the research was conducted.
  • Provide details on how to reduce suffering, including information on housing, food, and environmental enrichment.
  • Offer euthanasia and anesthesia modes.

Research will be denied if it does not adhere to the ethical approval and animal welfare standards mentioned above.

Research Involving Humans

The author must confirm that the study described has been conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the World Medical Association's code of ethics for human experimentation, if the work involves the use of human subjects. The article should adhere to the guidelines outlined in the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals. Specifically, it should strive to incorporate representative demographics such as age, sex, and ethnicity. Gender and sex terminology ought to be utilized appropriately.

To guarantee that they adhere to national and international standards, all protocols had to have been approved by the authors' institutional ethics committee or another appropriate ethical committee, Institutional Review Board, IRB. When submitting an article, specifics about this approval, such as the name of the review board, the institution, and the permit number(s), should be included. Ethics approval is required before any research undertaken; it is typically not possible to acquire approval retroactively, and publication of the findings may not be feasible.

The manuscript should state that informed consent obtained before using human subjects for experimentation. Human subjects' right to privacy must always be respected.

Research Involving Animals

The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 (UK) and its guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals should all be followed in accordance with the ARRIVE guidelines. The authors of the manuscript should explicitly state that these guidelines have been followed. Animal sex information should be disclosed, as well as, if relevant, how sex may have affected or been associated with the study's findings.

The ethical guidelines established by the authors' institution and any applicable national or international rules must be followed while conducting experiments on vertebrates or controlled invertebrates. A statement of ethics, any permissions obtained, and any animal licensing should be provided, if appropriate. In every situation, a declaration confirming that every attempt was taken to lessen any animal suffering should be issued, together with information on how this was accomplished.

Research Involving Plants

Plant studies have to follow national or international regulations as well as the instructions offered by the authors' institution. A list of all granted permissions or licenses, if any, ought to be included. Writers are to adhere to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Standards of Reporting

Since the research communication should facilitate verification and reproducibility, we encourage writers to include thorough explanations of their protocol, technique, analysis, and research reasoning in their publications.

Use of Third-Party Material

When reusing content from third parties in their writing, authors are to acquire all the necessary permissions. Third-party elements can be a text, graphics, pictures, tables, data, audio, video, still frames from movies, screenshots, music notation, and the like.

According to BJEPS policy, limited amounts of texts and some other kinds of information may be used for evaluation and criticism without a formal license. Before submitting your work, you must get written consent from the copyright owner if the author needs to utilize any content that is not protected by copyright and is not covered by this informal agreement.

Any permissions required for the reuse of copyrighted materials in the manuscript should be obtained by the submitting author. Although the advice and information in this journal were thought to be genuine and accurate at the time it went to press, none of the writers, editors, or publishers are liable for any mistakes or omissions that may have occurred. The publisher disclaims any warranties, implied or otherwise, with regard to the content of this publication.