Al-Bahir Journal for Engineering and Pure Sciences


Climate change issues have sparked intense debate around the world in recent years. Malaysia faces critical issues with global warming, which has changed the local climate, threatening critical ecosystems, including mangrove forests, and creating challenges in their habitat. This study was conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological attributes of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata in response to air temperature for the selection of tree species that can adapt to climate change. The seedlings were grown in controlled growth chambers with temperatures, of 21,28, and 38°C, under elevated CO2 at 650 ppm for three months. The plants were watered with three liters of 28-ppt saline water every 48 hours. Thus, after two weeks, the mangrove plant samples recorded positive results for all parameters of high temperature. The differences in temperature resulted in significant differences and positive responses between elevated CO2 and decreased temperature, which led to the samples surviving for all parameters and the growth being very slow. However, when the temperature is raised, the result is negative, and almost all of the samples perish. These results suggested that the low level of photosynthetic capacity might be attributed to the decreased CO2 fixative reaction system and photosynthetic pigment contents. Additional physical and climatic factors have an impact on what determines the increase or decrease in R. apiculata growth.